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Preface

Part 1. Standard machine for comprehensive information search based on module of elementary sense

Part 2. Standard machine for search with context

Part 3. Search machine with time variant context

 Part 4. Machine of categories. Two machines interaction

Conclusion

Projects. Comprehensing information processing

Part 4. Machine of categories. Two machines interaction

The peculiarity of the machine with the SPW evolving in actual time (SPW(t)) lies in the fact that it can support not only the function of search but to handle any other information problems with the help of specific subsystems (control protocols).

A concrete problem for which a control protocol is specifically developed is as a matter of fact a context for the SPW(t).

Various contexts operating SPW(t) are

categories.

In other words here a category is a context with a procedure applied to the SPW(t).

Categories use their procedures to determine the following issues:

  • The order of extraction of information from the SPW(t) (by means of applying the procedure to this or that information projection of the SPW(t)).
  • The order of utilization of the information in the SPW(t) (by means of its concrete definition, actualization of its corresponding area in the SPW(t) and the order of its movement with time).

A category may serve as a context for another category or a group of (movement of) categories. In this case it is a category context we deal with. How a category context is formed and how it is operated was shown in Part 2 where basic categories (basic contexts), such as formation, structure, procedure, time were introduced. After that (see Part 3) where the possibility of presenting various categories through the basic ones by means of specific procedures was demonstrated with an example of space context (space as category).

The fundamental drawback of the machine with categorical contexts is that in the general case there exists an infinite aggregate of categories (contexts) each of which requires a unique specific procedure (program) of treatment of the SPW(t). Besides, the categories themselves being constantly in movement converge into one another and generate new categories of other levels that in turn require specific control procedures (for instance, procedure of context coordination). If coordination of contexts is not taken into consideration the work of the machine becomes unpredictable.

Contradiction:

  • In order to enhance functional capacities (controllability) of the machine it is essential to introduce new context procedures (categories).
  • Adding new context procedures (categories) leads to appearance of unaccounted contexts (categories) of higher levels and to unpredictability of operation of the machine (decrease in controllability).

The contradiction is resolved by means of

subject-oriented process of formation categories.

In other words, just as the process of formation of a personality calls forth appearance of new specific phenomena and procedures of the personality itself, formation of new categories (context procedures applied to the SPW(t)) can be coordinated with the process of personality formation just in the same manner. See Addendum 4.1. Appearance of categories.

The machine itself is a phenomenon for the SPW(t) and occupies a certain place of its own in the SPW. Furthermore, while occupying its place this phenomenon is in the course of its formation and of interaction of this formation with the SPW(t). This recursive approach makes it possible to solve such problems as coordination of the SPW(t) with categories and self-correction of the machine by means of using

a duplicate of the SPW(t)
with controlling functions over the initial SPW(t).

The machine is then constructed of two parts (halves) - of the two identical SPW(t). The first - registers and records phenomena and processes is the ontological SPW1(t). The other - has active radicals (see Part 3) and controls the actual area using actual procedures is the procedure SPW2(t).

The process of self-correction of the machine is the process of formation of its categories, see Addendum 4.2. Formation of categories.

The structure of the machine with self-correction is presented in the Addendum 4.3. Machine of categories.

Features of the machine of categories (machine with self-correction).

1. The machine itself can be a user.

2. Development type and preserving type of the machine.
As it has been demonstrated in Part 2 (see Addendum 2.2) the upper module of the ontological SPW(t) looks as follows:

1. formation
of an infant
4. formation
of a parent
7. formation
of a "creator"
2. formation
of a child
5. formation
of a family man
8. formation
of a "founder"
3. formation
of a teenager
6. formation
of a "mentor"
9. formation
of a "teleologist"

Correlation of temporal contexts mainly with forward movement in the SPW: 1--2--3--4--5--6--7--8--9 secures the priority for development where stabilization provides the means for ensuring development.

Correlation of temporal contexts mainly with structural movement in the SPW: 1--4--7; 2--5--8; 3--6--9 secures the priority for stabilization where forward movement provides the means for ensuring stabilization safety.

Each specific machine would belong to a greater extent either to development or to preserving type. It is expedient to organize full-scale exchange of control information only between the different types of machines. Otherwise the effect of information degeneracy will manifest itself.

3. Mechanisms of degeneracy of the machine (marasmus). It follows from the item 2 that there exist several types of degeneracy:
- Degeneracy in development.
- Degeneracy in stabilization.
- Degeneracy in independence.

Degeneracy in development occurs when a system pursues forward movement without "fixing the results in their verity". Then at the new phase of development the resources it could rely upon would be much scantier. The system compensates shortage of resources by further forward movement and solves its problems by movement neglecting the phase of accumulation and fixation of resources. At the following phase of development resources become scarce and finally a breakdown occurs. The system degrades.

Degeneracy in stabilization occurs when the system tends to fixation of results without forward movement. In other words the system solves its problems by means of using up (spending) its resources neglecting forward movement and accumulation of new resources. As a result the moment comes when system-forming resources are exhausted and a breakdown occurs. The system degrades.

Degeneracy in independence occurs when the systems reaches the stage 9 of its development. At this moment it acquires "absolute tools", so to speak, that
- operate efficiently in all the points of the SPW;
- operate efficiently only relative to the system itself.
As a result the system uses the tools it has once mastered time and again and obtains a correct micro-result but an absolutely unacceptable erroneous macro-result (degradation in the 2-nd and 3-rd levels, see Addendum 3.1). It must be taken into consideration that the effect of information degeneracy (marasmus, degradation) may be true both for the SPW as a whole and for its separate areas.

4. Protection from information degeneracy. Protection from degeneracy in development and stabilization can be achieved by organizing periodical exchange of control procedures between the different types (the development type and the preserving type) of systems.

Note.
When constructing machines based on the experience of already existing ones it is expedient to unite the control procedures of the machines of opposite types.

However, the better and the more efficiently a system protects itself from degeneracy in development and in stabilization, the quicker it accumulates the "absolute tools" and reaches degeneracy in independence (analogous to old age marasmus). In this case a system may protect itself by undertaking other systems education (aid in formation). The principle of this remedy is in the fact that the more developed system has to accept the point of view of the less developed one and while assisting the latter in its formation to master new tools and set new goals for itself.

5. Depending upon what culture the machine is part of, its specific features and hallmarks it will bear.

6. Macro-dynamics of the relations between man and machine. The first objective of the machine is to educate a man using the knowledge accumulated by humanity whereas its second objective is to learn from a man thus adding to the humanity knowledge thesaurus. The two objectives constantly change into one another at each new turn. Nowadays it has become a topical issue as the cut-and-try method: formation through degradation with minimal accidental "fixation of results in their verity" imposes rather severe limitations on the existence and development of man.

7. Using machines with self-correction in the sphere of telecommunications would make it possible to add to the existing technique of digital multiplexing the multiplexing by sense: the information transmitted to the receiving party will comprise only what the later doesn't know.

8. Using machines with self-correction in the sphere of librarianship would make it possible to pass from the principle of a card index indicating the area (book) where the desired information can possibly be found to the principle of direct access to the necessary information.

9. If a machine with self-correction as a whole is regarded as an "action" module of elementary sense or a "subject-object" one (see Addendum 1.1) and a human being as an opposite module of elementary sense, a "subject-object" or an "action" one respectively, we are now dealing with a system with new properties of formation.


Addendum 4.1. Appearance of categories

Let us see, for instance, how the category "distance" appears. An infant cannot operate this category yet; it has not yet taken shape. A baby uses the category "grabbed -- couldn't grab" meaning "managed to grab a toy or not". Later in the process of formation of an infant there appears a new category "close -- far". With its emergence the category "close -- far" appears as context for "grabbed -- couldn't grab". Later there appears the category "distance" that serves as super-context for "close -- far".

Appearance of categories

Where
1 - category "grabbed -- couldn't grab";
2 - category "close -- far";
3 - category "distance";
1.1 - category "grabbed -- couldn't grab" at the moment of its appearance;
1.2 - category "grabbed -- couldn't grab" in the context of the category "close -- far";
1.3 - category "grabbed -- couldn't grab" in the context of the category "distance";
2.2 - category "close -- far" at the moment of its appearance;
2.3 - category "close -- far" in the context of the category "distance";
3.3 - category "distance" at the moment of its appearance.


Addendum 4.2. Formation of categories

The process of self-correction of the machine is the process of formation of its categories and it appears as follows:

1) Given are a SPW1(t) and a SPW2(t). The SPW2(t) possesses such basic category-procedure as advancement (formation) of the actual area of the subject in the SPW1(t). This procedure is initiated by three possible causes (three states of activity):
a) realization of actual goals of the subject (the user who specifies the concrete actual SPW(t) and its actual area) - in this case analysis, justified recommendations and aid in choosing the optimal mode of formation are required;
b) arrival of information from the information medium - it would be necessary to process it, to evaluate it and finally to adequately position it;
c) conflicting phenomena in the SPW(t) - it would be necessary to reveal or to refine the contexts resolving the existing conflicts.

2) Let us consider the case of a user having a specific task (goal). The user addresses the machine with his goal.

Note.
The user's goal may already be present in the machine, either it had been input before or it appeared as development (formation) of previous goals and the machine informs the user about the task that he may have to face.

3) Based upon the user's address the SPW2(t) designs a pattern of the most probable future from the point of view of the available information resources (probable movement) in the SPW1(t).

4) The results of patterning reveal new resources in the SPW1(t) and advance the said pattern further on time wise, structure wise and category wise. This advancement is evaluated by the SPW2(t) from the point of view of the three phases of procedure context formation (Addendum 3.1):
- formation of the phenomenon (testing the result itself);
- formation of the process (testing the consistency of the result with the future);
- formation of the system of processes.

5) If according to the prognosis obtained the expected results are unacceptable the SPW2(t) initiates the procedures of specification (more precise definition) of the required result and the procedures of solution (see Addendum 2.2, Context of formation). Based on the results of the solution the SPW2(t) furnishes the user with the necessary solutions, advices, recommendations, explanations and operational instructions from the SPW1(t).

6) The user performs practical actions.

7) The information about the results of the user's activities is entered into the machine into the SPW1(t). The difference between the expected and the actual results is traced in the SPW2(t); hence an area of unknown contexts is formed in the SPW1(t) (see Addendum 2.1).

Note.
The information concerning the results may come from the user himself, be traced by the machine, etc.

8) The SPW2(t) initiates the procedures of elucidation of the unknown contexts and formulates hypotheses concerning new possible categories in the SPW1(t) (formation of categories).

9) Later if the new categories prove to be efficient the SPW2(t) actualizes them (transports them from the SPW1(t) and comprises in itself) and provides them with active radicals. This is the way for self-observing mind to secure its own formation by distinguishing development from degradation and fixing, according to Hegel, the results in their verity.


Addendum 4.3. Machine of categories

The framework of a machine of categories (machine with self-correction) looks as follows:

Machine of categories

Next: Conclusion Next



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